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Monitoring Irrigation Water Pollution of Nile Delta of Egypt with Heavy Metals

Saad A.E Abdelrazek

The present work attempts to study the distribution of heavy metals in  some drainage and canals  located in Northern part of Egypt. Eight metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) were determined in water. Metals concentrations in water varied between in different years and were, Fe (0.18 -117.11), Mn (0.01 -58.98), Zn (0.01 -90.56 ), Cu (0.005 -65.70), Pb (0.016 -36.64), Cd (0.000 -14.69), Co(0.002-89.72), Ni (0.019 -73.22) mg/l respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in water are compared with many guidelines to predict status of water pollution (Guideline for water irrigation agricultural  FAO, 2017   and Specifications of fresh water, according to Law 48 of 1982 ,Article 60 of the Regulations). The results showed that all canals in this study are considered as sources of worst water for irrigation, and also all drains and mixed canals are considered above division of increasing salinity problems of irrigation water. Finally, the main drains are considered highly saline for irrigation and classified as salinity problems, So causing adverse impact on soil properties and productivity. The concentrations of heavy metals, pH and salinity are pollutants in all canals,  and are still above the critical limits and could not be used for irrigation. This study recommends effective implementation of laws and regulations, removal of encroachments and buildings on the canal's borders and waterways, Nile River ,raise awareness and Provide the necessary resources to separate the waste of human activity from the biological and non-biological systems (biotic and a biotic).

Keywords: Irrigation water pollution, Heavy metals, Legislative approaches in Egypt, North Egypt.